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First Short Paper:  

In this short paper (800-1,000 words, dbl. spaced, standard
12-point font), you will explain the major Christological perspectives that
were discussed in the Ecumenical Councils of the fourth and fifth centuries
(the Councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, and Chalcedon).

The Controversy

First, drawing from your course texts, briefly discuss the
controversy over the deity of Jesus (approx. 250-300 words).

· What were the positions of the different parties
(concentrate on their views about Christ)?

· Why did they hold these views?

The Outcome

Second, describe the outcome of these councils, including
the “Chalcedonian Definition” (approx. 250-300 words).

· What conclusions were reached at Nicaea and the subsequent

· Why did they reach them?

· What difference did these specific conclusions make in the
life of the church?

Application and Analysis

Third, apply what you have learned to your contemporary
Christian fellowship/church experience (approx. 300-400 words). Possible
questions for your reflection in this third section would be:

· What is the Christology (the understanding of who Christ
is) of your contemporary Christian fellowship/church?

· How does this Christology compare or contrast with Nicene

· How does your Christian fellowship/church adherence or
departure from Nicene orthodoxy affect the message of salvation (and it does!)?

· Why should (or shouldn’t) the thinking of contemporary
Christians be/ become aligned with the Nicene Creed?


1. Writing: All papers and essays must follow the writing
style format required by the degree specialty for which they are being written.
The writing style to be used in this course is APA. Students will find the
following book helpful: A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
7th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007) Turabian, Kate L., Gregory
G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and Wayne C. Booth, eds. (ISBN-13: