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Introduction to Policing


I would like to dedicate this third edition to William P. McCamey and Gene L. Scaramella,
co-authors of the first and second editions, who both lost their battles with cancer. Both Bill and
Gene were close friends and colleagues. I miss them more than words can say. Memories made
over many years remain fresh in my mind.

?Steve Cox

I would like to dedicate my work on this book to the original three authors, Steven M. Cox,
William P. McCamey, and Gene L. Scaramella, whom I never had the good fortune to meet in
person, and whose work established a firm platform for me from which to spring.

I also dedicate this volume to my mother, Sara, who nursed me through an illness that
occurred just as I approached a critical deadline. She instilled in me the values of hard work,
honesty, and perseverance, all of which have proven to be qualities indispensible in arriving at
the completed third edition of Introduction to Policing.

Lastly, I would like to acknowledge the men and women who dedicate themselves to public
service in police organizations across the nation and who perform their difficult jobs with
integrity and a balanced sense of justice. We all depend on them.

?Susan Marchionna


Introduction to Policing

Western Illinois University

Criminal Justice Communications Consultant

Los Angeles County Sheriff?s Department Woodbury University


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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Cox, Steven M. | Marchionna, Susan. | Fitch, Brian D.
Title: Introduction to policing / Steven M. Cox, Susan Marchionna, Brian D. Fitch.
Description: Third Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, Inc., 2016. | ?2017 | Revised edition of Introduction to policing,

2014. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2015038734 | ISBN 978-1-5063-0754-1 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Police?United States. | Community policing?United States.
Classification: LCC HV8139 .C69 2016 | DDC 363.20973?dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015038734
This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Brief Contents


1. Chapter 1. Policing in the United States
2. Chapter 2. A Brief History of Police in the United States
3. Chapter 3. Police Organization and Administration

1. Chapter 4. Recruitment and Selection of Police Officers
2. Chapter 5. Police Training and Education
3. Chapter 6. Police Work: Operations and Functions
4. Chapter 7. Contemporary Strategies in Policing

1. Chapter 8. The Police Culture and Work Stress
2. Chapter 9. Law, Court Decisions, and the Police
3. Chapter 10. Discretion and Ethics in Policing
4. Chapter 11. Police Misconduct and Accountability

1. Chapter 12. Policing in a Diverse Society
2. Chapter 13. Technology and the Police
3. Chapter 14. Organized Crime, Homeland Security, and Global Issues
4. Chapter 15. Private Police

1. Chapter 16. The Future of Policing in the United States




Detailed Contents


Chapter 1. Policing in the United States
Chapter Learning Objectives
The Concept and Mandate of the Police
Scope of the Law Enforcement Sector

Levels of Policing
State Police
Federal Law Enforcement

A Changing Landscape
Additional Types of Police

Private Police
Special Jurisdiction Police
Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs
Auxiliary/Reserve/Special Police
Conservation Police Officers, Game Wardens
Tribal Police Officers

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 2. A Brief History of Police in the United States
Chapter Learning Objectives
English Roots of Policing
The Evolution of Early U.S. Policing
The Political Era

Police Accountability
The Reform Era
The Era of Social Upheaval (1960s and 1970s)

Research on Police Effectiveness
The Community-Policing Era (1980?2000)
The Homeland Security Era (2001?Present)
Some Contemporary Policing Strategies

Intelligence-Led or Intelligence-Based Policing
Terrorism-Oriented Policing

Policing in the Past, Present, and Future
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 3. Police Organization and Administration
Chapter Learning Objectives
Organizational Structures

Police Hierarchy


Hierarchy and Communication
The Paramilitary Structure
Decentralized and Proactive Organizations
Police Organizations in Context

Operations Division
Administrative or Staff Services Division

Organizational Substructures
Functional Design

Handling Change in Police Organizations
Police Militarization
Police Unions and Collective Bargaining

Police Unions and Professionalism
Police Professionalism

Professional Literature and Research
Code of Ethics
Professional Associations
Academic Field

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 4. Recruitment and Selection of Police Officers

Chapter Learning Objectives
The Importance of Recruitment and Selection

Generational Issues
The Process

Antidiscrimination Legislation
Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act
The Americans with Disabilities Act

Entry-Level Recruitment and Selection
Costs of Outreach
Targeted Recruiting
Monitoring and Evaluating
Recruiting and Retaining Women Officers

Women and Promotions
Recruiting and Retaining Officers of Color

Testing of Candidates
Status Tests


U.S. Citizenship
Preference Points

Physical Tests
Physical Agility Tests
Height-Weight Proportion Tests
Vision Requirements
Medical Examinations

Mental Tests
Tests of Intelligence, Knowledge, or Aptitude
Psychological Tests

Tests of Morality
Background Investigations
Drug Tests
Polygraph Examinations

Tests of Ability to Communicate
The Oral Board

Supervisory Recruitment and Selection
Grooming Supervisors

Testing Candidates
Assessment Centers

Strengths of the Assessment Center
Recruitment and Selection of Police Chiefs
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 5. Police Training and Education
Chapter Learning Objectives
Police Education

Higher Education and the Police: A Debate

Arguments in Favor of Education
What Do Agencies Require?
What Do the Police Think?

Research on College Education and Police Performance
Research Results

Positive Results
Inconclusive Results

The Importance of Leadership in Education: What Are Leaders to Do?
Evaluating Leaders

Police Training
Purposes of Training
What Kind of Training and How Much?

Department Support for Training
Types of Training

Recruit Training
Training and Community-Oriented Policing


Field Training
Ongoing In-Service Training

Technological Advances and Online Training
Who Should Conduct Police Training?

Funding for Training
Mandatory Versus Voluntary Training
Training and Police Leadership
Training Effectiveness

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 6. Police Work: Operations and Functions
Chapter Learning Objectives
Basic Police Functions

Order Maintenance and Law Enforcement
Broken Windows and Zero Tolerance Policing
Policing the Mentally Ill

Investigations and Forensic Science
Investigations and Community-Oriented Policing

Styles of Policing
Watchman Style
Legalistic Style
Service Style

Patrol Strength and Allocation
Intuitive Approach
Comparative Approach
Workload Analysis

Other Types of Patrol
Evaluating Patrol
Evaluating Police Performance

Evaluating Officer Performance
Evaluating Agency Performance

Police and the Media
Media Relations Programs
Social Media

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 7. Contemporary Strategies in Policing
Chapter Learning Objectives
Community Policing

The LEMAS Survey
Problem-Oriented Policing


Research on Community- and Problem-Oriented Policing
Criticisms of Community Policing

Rhetoric Versus Practice
Crime Reduction

The Current Status of COP and POP
Innovations in Policing Strategies

Information Innovations
Intelligence-Led Policing
Evidence-Based Policing

Focused Resources
Hot-Spot Policing
Directed Patrol
Differential Response Policing

Changing Up the Environment
Situational Crime Prevention
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
Saturation Patrol and Crackdowns

Collaboration and Organization
Pulling Levers Policing
Incident Command Systems

Policing Processes
Broken Windows
Procedural Justice Policing

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 8. The Police Culture and Work Stress

Chapter Learning Objectives
What Is Culture?

Socialization, Isolation, and the Code
Erosion of the Public?s Trust

Analyzing Police Subculture
Contributing Factors


The Police Personality: How Real?
Types of Stresses in Police Work

Task Demands
Role Demands
Interpersonal Demands


Physical Demands
Effects and Consequences of Police Stress

Personal Pitfalls

Stress and Police Families
Police Officer Suicide

Research on Police Suicide
Police Shootings and Critical Incidents
Counteracting Police Stress
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 9. Law, Court Decisions, and the Police
Chapter Learning Objectives
The 1st Amendment
The 2nd Amendment
The 4th Amendment

Probable Cause and Reasonableness
Searches and Seizures With and Without a Warrant
Police Stops
Police Searches Incident to Arrest
Consent Searches

The 5th Amendment
The 14th Amendment
The Exclusionary Rule
Police Use of Force
The USA PATRIOT Act, Homeland Security, and Terrorism
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 10. Discretion and Ethics In Policing
Chapter Learning Objectives
Police Discretion

Factors That Influence Discretion
The Situation, Setting, and Suspect
Departmental Policy and Culture
The Law
Political and Economic Pressure

The Challenge of Discretion

Ethics and Police Conduct
Ethics in Police Education
Evaluating Police Ethics


Biased Enforcement and Racial Profiling
Leadership and Improving Decision Making

Media Relations
Intolerance of Malfeasance

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 11. Police Misconduct and Accountability
Chapter Learning Objectives

What Is Corruption?
Background of Corruption
Official Investigation Into Corruption

Other Types of Police Misconduct
Nonfeasance, Misfeasance, and Malfeasance
Drug-Related Corruption
Emotional Abuse and Psychological Harassment
Corruption of Authority

Opportunistic Theft
Protection of Illegal Activities

Excessive Use of Force
Research on Police Misconduct and Use of Force
The Impacts of Misconduct

Race and Police Harassment
Research on Profiling

Causes of Misconduct?Bad Apples or Bad Barrels?
Noble Cause Corruption

Misconduct: Management and Administrative Issues
Addressing Misconduct

Accountability and Community Policing
Citizen Oversight Groups
Internal Affairs
Police Discipline

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions


Internet Exercises

Chapter 12. Policing in A Diverse Society
Chapter Learning Objectives
Policing in a Multicultural and Multiethnic Society

Changing Demographics
Mentally Ill

The Problem and Promise of Diversity
Police?Community Conflict

Police?Minority Encounters
Peer Pressure
Forms of Discrimination

Profiling the Muslim Community
Legislation on Profiling
Driving or Walking While Black
Research on Police Discrimination

Public Image of the Police
Police in the Community

Cultural Diversity and Awareness Training
Police Responsiveness
The Community Role in Multicultural Relations

Citizen Complaints
A Representative Workforce

Women in Policing

Women of Color
Challenges for Women Police Officers

Minority Police Officers
African American Police Officers

Why Become Police?
Department Benefits
Challenges for African American Police Officers

Hispanic Police Officers
Challenges for Hispanic Police Officers

Asian Police Officers
LGBTQ Police Officers
Recruiting and Retaining Minorities as Police Officers

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 13. Technology and the Police
Chapter Learning Objectives
The Costs and Benefits of Technology


Video Cameras
Vehicle Cameras
Body-Worn Cameras
Mobile Phone Cameras

Surveillance Technology
Drones and Robots

Crime Mapping
Biological Identifiers

Facial Recognition
Bacterial Forensics

Speed Detection Devices or Systems
Armor and Weapons

Body Armor
Police Weapons

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 14. Organized Crime, Homeland Security, and Global Issues
Chapter Learning Objectives
Transnational Crime

Transnational Organized Crime
Types of TOC

White-Collar Crime
Costs of White-Collar Crime

Foreign and Domestic Terrorists
Types of Terrorism
Intersecting Crime Flows

Local Response to Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime
Antiterrorism and Organized Crime Legislation

Department of Homeland Security
The USA PATRIOT Act and Information Sharing
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act

Race, Ethnicity, and the Police Response to Transnational Crime
First-Responder Preparedness
The Role of the Public

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 15. Private Police
Chapter Learning Objectives
History and Background

The Rise of the Modern Private Security Industry


The Current Private Security Force

Private and Contract Security Personnel
Who Are They?
What Roles Do They Fill?
Security Officers

Private Detectives and Investigators
Executive Protection Agents

Authority, Requirements, and Accountability
Hiring Requirements

Private Versus Public Police
The Benefits of Private Police
The Risks of Privatizing the Police

Coordinating Public Police and Private Security
Moving Forward

Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises

Chapter 16. The Future of Policing in The United States

Chapter Learning Objectives
The Changing Context

Research and Planning

Ongoing and Strategic Change
Trust and Legitimacy
Policy and Oversight
Technology and Social Media
Policing Strategies

Community-Oriented Policing
Predictive Policing

Evolving Police Personnel
Training and Education
Police Leadership
Private and Contract Security Personnel
Officer Wellness and Safety

Terrorism and Future Policing
Intelligence-Led Policing and Terrorism

Chapter Summary
Key Term
Discussion Questions
Internet Exercises





Police in the United States must operate in the face of a climate that is constantly changing?
politically, economically, socially, and legally.

As the 21st century unfolds, police officers must continue to perform traditional tasks related to
law enforcement and order maintenance. At the same time, they must find innovative ways to be
problem solvers and community organizers. The public expects them to perform all of these diverse
tasks wisely and ethically.

The nation?s police also have had to come to terms with the global nature of crime. The
conditions that exist throughout the world increasingly complicate the organizational and functional
dynamics of the police community. Police executives must think and plan globally in a spirit of
interagency cooperation now more than at any point in history.

A series of controversial and high-profile events have given rise to a new wave of public attention
on the police, especially in regards to the use of force and race.

Standing in relief among several other similar events, the deaths of Eric Garner in New York,
Walter Scott in North Charleston, South Carolina, and?perhaps most symbolically?Michael Brown
in Ferguson, Missouri, have galvanized a wave of protests against police practices that much of the
public perceives as unjust. Communities are scrutinizing police behavior and accountability, as has
occurred in other eras. However, today, almost everyone is carrying a video camera around in his or
her pocket or purse. Video footage of police interactions with the public appears instantly online.

Many consider the issues surrounding police use of force, especially in communities of color, to be
the most important civil rights cause of our current day.

There is clearly a vast gulf in understanding between the police and the community that these
events illuminate. In some communities, the public and the police have squared off and are
maintaining polar positions. Men and women in uniform have become the targets of angry and
violent retaliation, while police departments across the nation struggle to defend their policies and

In many ways, Ferguson has become a lightning rod for these critical policing issues. The U.S.
Department of Justice (DOJ) reported in March 2015 that the Ferguson Police Department?s law
enforcement efforts were focused on generating revenue rather than ensuring public safety. The DOJ
also reported that the department?s practices violated the 1st, 4th, and 14th Amendments; caused
significant harm to individual members of the community; and undermined the public trust. The
report applauded the efforts of many of the department?s and the city?s employees who ?perform their
duties lawfully and with respect for all members of the Ferguson community.?1 Finally, the DOJ
recommended a host of changes to police practices and court procedures. Primary among these
recommendations is that Ferguson implement a robust program of community policing, which
includes some of the following points?that it fundamentally change the way it conducts stops and
searches, issues citations and summonses, and makes arrests; that it increase its data collection and
analysis; that it change its use-of-force policies and practices to encourage de-escalation; and that it
retrain its officers to improve interaction with vulnerable people. At the same time, the DOJ analyzed
the shooting in detail, cleared Officer Darren Wilson of willfully violating Brown?s civil rights, and
stated that Wilson?s use of force was defensible. Also, many of the media accounts contained
erroneous information about Brown?s actions immediately prior to the shooting, according to the

To the extent that these issues resonate in other of the nation?s police departments, the lessons of
Ferguson will prove to have enormous value. Thus, the public and the police both are coming to


realize, once again, that a basic requirement for effective and efficient civil policing is a meaningful
community partnership. Only when such a partnership exists can the police perform all of their tasks
as problem solvers, service providers, and law enforcers. Only then will the public provide the support
and resources necessary for the successful performance of these tasks. This partnership must be based
on open, two-way communication, trust, and mutual respect.

This text attempts to shed light on the complex world of policing and to help bridge the gulf of
understanding. Although the chapters examine a variety of topics separately, all of the subject matter is
interrelated and is best considered as a totality. Changes in any one area have repercussions in other
areas. Examining the relationships among the issues facing the police helps to bring some much-
needed clarity to this dynamic and multifaceted world.

The Organization
This text consists of five sections and 16 chapters, providing readers with thought-provoking and

contemporary issues that underscore today?s challenging world of policing. The text begins with a
discussion of past and current policing strategies. Part I, Foundations of Policing, encompasses
Chapters 1, 2, and 3 and provides context for subsequent chapter topics by introducing the general
subject of the police, its history in the United States, and how the police are organized and

Part II, Police Operations, includes Chapters 4 through 7, which focus on the human dynamics
that affect policing: the recruitment, selection, and promotion of police officers; training and
education; the operations and functions of police work; and contemporary strategies that take into
account the public perceptions of police and various strategies such as community-based policing and
intelligence-led policing.

Part III, Police Conduct, includes Chapters 8 through 11, which examine the police subculture
that often determines individual and group decision making; the institutional and organizational
structures and processes that pertain to the law; the social, political, and economic forces that affect
the field; discretion and ethics; and police misconduct and accountability.

Part IV, Contemporary Issues in Policing, includes Chapters 12 through 15 and deals with
complex factors that affect the field of policing, including issues such as social diversity, the use of
rapidly advancing technology, the impact of global issues such as terrorism and transnational
organized crime, and the increasingly significant role of the private security industry.

The book concludes with Part V (Chapter 16), Looking Ahead, which takes a view toward the
future of policing in the United States.

Key Features of the Text
Each chapter contains a variety of thought-provoking exercises, highlights, and supplemental

materials. These unique features include the following:

Around the World highlights relevant topics in other nations to afford readers the
opportunity to consider, from a worldwide perspective, what they might otherwise view as
problems unique to U.S. police agencies. The feature also suggests resources for further

You Decide presents students with realistic dilemmas that might be encountered during
a career in policing. Students are encouraged to consider possible solutions to these
dilemmas using information from the text, other sources, or personal experiences. This
feature should help promote spirited classroom discussions.

Case in Point includes real-life examples from current and past events to emphasize one


or more of the major issues associated with the chapter topic. This feature also includes
thought-provoking discussion questions.

Police Stories bring in personal experiences from the field of policing. They are firsthand
accounts that share with students actual incidents from the past that serve as meaningful
learning experiences. Students can reflect on and discuss what they would do under similar

Exhibits are brief supplemental pieces that relate to and enhance the text and provide
additional insight and depth.

Beyond these features, each chapter also includes a set of learning objectives, key terms and
phrases, discussion questions based on the learning objectives, and two to three Internet exercises.

We hope that these key features will make this text even more useful as students develop a deeper
understanding of the complex and dynamic field of policing.

New to This Edition
Each chapter of the third edition has been reorganized and presents the subject in a more

streamlined and direct writing style. Throughout, this edition incorporates issues of ethnicity and race,
including practices and outcomes.

In addition to these overall changes, this third edition:

Contains the most recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions that affect the police.
Includes the most important technological developments in policing.
Provides up-to-date coverage of current issues, emerging trends, and innovations in the areas of
technology, use of force, diversity, and police?community relations.


Research, statistics, and data have been updated to provide an accurate snapshot of policing
Ten new Police Stories have been added to include a wider range of officer voices.
Exhibit boxes have been added that provide concrete examples to help students make real-world
The number of figures included in the text has been quadrupled to provide a more visual display
of information.
Over half of the You Decide boxes have been updated to present new scenarios.
Seven new Case in Point boxes have been added to highlight recent events.
The organization and writing style of each chapter has been enhanced to increase student
engagement, comprehension, and retention of the information.
Questions have been added to the Case in Point and Around the World boxes to further engage
students and encourage critical thinking.

SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of tools and resources

for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge
of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on demand. Learning and
teaching have never been easier!

SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and


create a rich learning environment for students.


Test banks provide a diverse range of prewritten options as well as the opportunity to edit any
question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students? progress and
Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring
one?s course.
Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia
presentation for the course.
EXCLUSIVE! Full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and
expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically.
Video and audio links includes original SAGE videos that appeal to students with different
learning styles.
Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class
Web resources extend and reinforce learning and allow for further research on important
chapter topics

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their
coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery
of course material.
Video and audio links enhance classroom-based exploration of key topics.
A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and
materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience.
Learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
Web resources and web exercises allow for further research on important chapter topics
EXCLUSIVE! Full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and
expand on the concepts presented in each chapter.

Thanks to Professors Richard Ward, Paul Ilsley, Michael Hazlett, John Wade, Matthew Lippman,

David Harpool, Bob Fischer, Giri Raj Gupta, Denny Bliss, Terry Campbell, Sandy Yeh, Bill Lin,
Jennifer Allen, John Conrad, John Song, Stan Cunningham, and Don Bytner for their friendship,
guidance, encouragement, and contributions to the book. Thanks also to the many police officers who
shared their experiences with us over the years, including O. J. Clark, Jerry Bratcher, Mark
Fleischhauer, Brian Howerton, Jerry Friend, Bill Hedeen, Bob Elliott, Donna Cox, Michael Holub,
Dwight Baird, John Harris, William Lansdowne, Michael Ruth, Anthony Abbate, Timothy Bolger,
and Richard Williams. And thanks to Judges John D. Tourtelot, Edward R. Danner, and Thomas J.

The third edition authors wish to also thank the first and second edition authors, Steven M. Cox,
William P. McCamey, and Gene L. Scaramella. Thanks go as well to current and former police
officers Connie Koski, ?